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By Elizabeth Fry Date of Birth: June 11, 1960, in Cleveland, Ohio Family: Wife - Lisa Children - Daphne, Arabella, Zoe, and Oliver Education: Dr.

Oz received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University.

There are a variety of doctoral degrees, with the most common being the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is called a terminal degree. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field, as well as study research methodology. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.

D.), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to the scientific disciplines. Many universities also award "honorary doctorates" to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society. The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more. In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant.

There are also other types of doctorates, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D. The term "doctor" derives from the Latin docere meaning "to teach/teacher". Generally longer times to degree are typical in American programs in comparison to those in most other countries. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.

The doctorate (Latin: doctum, "[that which is] taught") appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach Latin: licentia docendi at a medieval university. S.), various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D. Licentiate degrees generally have fewer requirements than Ph. Sweden similarly awards both the Licentiate's degree as a lower-level doctorate and the proper doctorate as a higher-level degree. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external.

Because the Philosophies included all those higher subjects other than Medicine, Theology, and Law, the teaching of Philosophy (Greek, Philosophiae) encompassed the original scholarly studies. D, adheres to this historic convention, even though the degrees are not always for the study of Philosophy. the Doctorate) was originally reserved to the Catholic church, which required the applicant to pass a test, to take an oath of allegiance and pay a fee. Eng.) the German engineering doctorate Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.) and the German natural science doctorate Doctor rerum naturalium (nat.). Norway abolished its Licentiate terminology, calling those qualifications Ph. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor (Doctor) followed by the main area of specialization, e.g.

The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access—at that time largely free of charge—of all able applicants. This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and universities that were slowly distancing themselves from the Church. Universities did not originally admit female students into their doctoral programs. The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. D.s, and thus lower degrees than the Swedish and Danish doctorates, while equal to the Danish Ph. (Licentiate's) degree and the Swedish Licentiate's degree. Doutor em Direito (Doctor of Laws), Doutor em Ciências da Computação (Doctor of Computer Sciences), Doutor em Filosofia (Doctor of Philosophy), Doutor em Economia (Doctor of Economics), Doutor em Engenharia (Doctor of Engineering) or Doutor em Medicina (Doctor of Medicine).

The right was granted by the pope to the University of Paris in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach licentia ubiquie docendi. The first doctorates to female students were granted in 1678 to Elena Cornaro Piscopia at the University of Padua, in 1732 to Laura Bassi at Bologna University, in 1754 to Dorothea Erxleben at Halle University and in 1785 to María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda at Complutense University, Madrid. Department of Education (2008), are not considered an academic Doctorate. D.) was established by Harvard University for the same reasons that the M. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. In other countries such as Belgium, the Licentiate is equivalent to a master's degree, while in still others it is a simple diploma. The generic title of Doutor em Ciências (Doctor of Sciences) is normally used to refer collectively to doctorates in the natural sciences (i.e.

However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree baccalaureus, it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive teaching qualification. (Doctor of Divinity and Legum Doctor [of Laws]) were likely the first, at least recorded, "doctor" titles (but still not a formal licentia or degree). The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. In the Pontifical system, a Licentiate is equivalent to an advanced master's degree, or the post-master's coursework required in preparation for a doctorate. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc.) All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free (mandated by the Brazilian constitution).

According to Bourner, Bowden, & Laing (2001) the first Doctoral degree (that is, the first formal Doctorate allowing the holder license to profess a Philosophiae) was awarded in medieval Paris circa 1150-1200. University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. This date preceded all other academic titles and when created, formal degrees, such as the Scottish M. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. The habilitation (highest available degree) demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. A.), Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Social Science (D. A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a particularly high standard. Litt.) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Scandinavia. Some graduate students are additionally supported by institutional scholarships granted by federal government agencies like CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) and CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Pessoal de Ensino Superior).

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